The Place des Vosges does not strictly speaking fall within the Versailles Century time period (1682-1789), as it was built between 1605 and 1612. In other words, construction started in the reign of Henri IV and finished early in the reign of Louis XIII. The connection to the latter king, however, is enough of a justification to write about it here, I feel, since Louis XIII actually built the original chateau at Versailles.
In fact, according to French Wikipedia (from which I get most of my information for posts of this type), the square was inaugurated with a carrousel (ie. a large-scale equestrian performance) in honour of Louis XIII’s wedding to Anne of Austria, who, despite her name, was a Spanish princess. In 1639, a statue of Louis XIII was put up in the centre of the square. It was pulled down during the Revolution, but a new one by the sculptors Dupaty and Cortot was erected in 1825. It’s still there.